1.- Envolve not change…. Presentation
Evolve, not change
2.- Spanish…PresentationindexBeatriz. Santos
3.- Energy Neutral Dublin… Presentaton Paper Outline. Irish team
4.- UK group presentation UK Group Presentation
In Spain spatial planning and energy have never been treated together because energy has always depended on private sector without connection to urban planning.
In the last years, the government has developed building rehabilitation policies with special influence in energy saving through economic aids and a new regulation with the requirement for solar panels to be fitted to new public buildings and dwellings to generate electricity for self-consumption, mainly hot water and heating.
However, these actions have not linked to urban planning which also needs to be adapted to new necessities. Keeping specific plots (areas) for energetic systems such as solar thermal or cogeneration plants, which means new urban land uses that allow new forms of urban energy production, developing new instruments like energy urban plans or establishing a regulation of solar plates in roofs should be taken into account.
Moreover, our main urban planning instrument, the general urban plan, has several limitations related to energy planning, the absence of alternative energies treatment or the lack of connection between planning and energy saving which is promoted through rehabilitation to improve the overall energy efficiency of the housing.
Therefore, the purpose of this paper is firstly to study these problems and later some pilot experience that has recently been presented to show how planning can help to deliver sustainable energy solutions considering the design (planning), cogeneration system (energy) and the finance (economy).
Beatriz Santos Sánchez
Transforming London into the Energy Neutral City
London is a city facing considerable energy challenges, but also pioneering new approaches to generation and consumption. The Mayor of London has stated and aims to achieve 60% reduction in CO2 by 2025; a target which is far more ambitious than new European Union’s objective of a 40% reduction by 2030.
We consider that a strategic planning outlook on London’s future energy needs is an absolute requirement given the city’s rising population, ageing electricity distribution infrastructure and political pressure to shift towards more decentralised energy sources. London will need to respond to these pressures by introducing more localised low carbon energy sources into its energy network – but how can this be facilitated through planning?
Our Study therefore proposes to focus on addressing key questions, such as “How can London become a less energy and carbon intensive city?” and “How can we move to a lower carbon energy system, which is both more secure and more affordable for London’s population?”
Our approach to the Study will be to analyse the existing planning instruments and policies in place before exploring these through best practice case studies, from the local level (Brixton Community Energy Project) to the district level (Stratford City and the Olympic Park). In doing so, the Study will propose new approaches that could be adopted to facilitate London’s transformation into the energy neutral city; and applied elsewhere across the European Union in similar circumstances – addressing significant issues such as the heat loss, energy pricing and security in addition to the emerging concept of energy masterplanning.
Zoe Green (Group Coordinator) – Senior Planning Consultant (Atkins)
Rachel Ferguson – Planning Consultant (CBRE)
Jonathan Manns – Associate Director (Colliers International)
Donald Messenger – Planning Consultant (Deloitte)
Harry Manley – Planning Consultant (Deloitte)
Jonathan Douglas Green – Planning Consultant (Mott MacDonald)
Dennis IJsselstijn, David Jacome, Todor Kesarovski, Jan Portheine, Daniel Radai
(Delft University of Technology, Netherlands)
Evolve, not change. Improve, not replace.
Urban conservation as a strategy for sustainable spatial development
Our world is undergoing an unprecedented process of global urbanisation. Cities have been growing, both spatially and demographically, and are projected to accommodate almost all of the world’s population in 2050. This pre-determines a constantly rising pressure on energy and mobility systems challenging the sustainability of the urban environments. Striving to deal with these issues the existing building stock and transportation networks, which serve the ever changing urban lifestyles, demand certain adaptations. Conservational approach towards the urban fabric could be indeed employed as a tool for general spatial development strategy in order to foster a sustainable prosperity and the quality of life in cities. However, the physical preservation must also incorporate and emphasise an energy conservation and renewable resources utilisation strategy because the long-run effects of restoration projects may be harmful in terms of environmental sustainability. The essence of this concept is the belief that future urban demands could be met on the basis of the richness of the past with the right means applied.
This project addresses the conservation of existing housing fabric based on a technological solution, which ensures energy-positive buildings and a conceptual vision enabling to facilitate self-sustaining habitat on urban scale. Our case study is developed on Honselersdijk, a residential town located in the greater metropolitan areas of The Hague (the Netherlands). The essence of the project relies on the establishment of distributed energy generation and shared consumption grid, promoted simultaneously via top-down and bottom-up planning approaches. In order to enhance the transport flow efficiency, an integrated strategy developed on cycling and shared vehicles is elaborated within the existing major mobility network on metropolitan level. In particular, our ambition is to manifest an urban concept where sustainability is not just about creating energy efficient and durable spaces but it is fundamentally about promoting lifestyle based on shared communal responsibility and awareness regarding the performance of the multi-scalar urban systems.
Irish Abstract Title:
“Energy Neutral Dublin: The role of Irish Planners and Policy in the pursuit of the energy efficient City”
The European Commission recently set a number of energy targets for Europe to achieve by 2030, including reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 40% compared to 1990 (EC, 2014). Ireland was recently referred to the European Court of Justice for failing to meet emission reduction targets so it remains to be seen if this is an achievable target (Lynch, 2014). In recent years, the recognition of spatial planning’s role in formulating responses to such issues has led to the development of guidelines and strategies for the purpose of ensuring that planning for energy can be conducted at various spatial levels. This paper will provide an examination of the actions and achievements of the Irish planning sector to date in the pursuit of increased energy efficiency and seeks to establish the potential for planners to act as paradigm shapers in the development of sustainable energy solutions. The response of the Irish Planning System to the now widely accepted need to increase energy efficiency in the built environment will be evaluated (such as is outlined in the EU imposed directive on energy efficiency, 2012/27/EU).
Particular attention will be paid to the issues and challenges posed by housing and transport as obstacles to the goal of increasing energy efficiency in urban areas. A number of relevant sub-themes will be examined, such as the rise in the importance of energy efficient homes and the continued threat of urban sprawl fuelled by the renewed demand for lower density housing in suburban areas.
The ideal of the Energy Neutral City will be discussed with regards Dublin where the paper seeks to answer a number of pressing questions; Could such an ideal be plausible in a city that appears perennially characterised by urban sprawl, private car transport and lower residential densities?; Are the strategies advocating energy efficiency and sustainability (such as in Irelands Second National Energy Efficiency Action Plan, 2012-2020) undermined by policy decisions such as the recent decision by Dublin City Council to reduce permissible densities in a number of key development areas in order to allow houses as opposed to apartments? (Kelly, 2014); Are existing policies and targets to improve transport systems and residential energy efficiency enough for Dublin to satisfy the European energy agenda, or is there scope for alternative ideas which may make the Energy Neutral City a possibility?
European Commission (2014), ‘2030 framework for climate and energy policies’. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/2030/index_en.htm. [Accessed on 31st January 2014].
Lynch, S (2014), ‘EU Commission refers Ireland to European Court of Justice over failure to meet renewable energy targets’, Irish Times, 24 Jan. Available at: http://www.irishtimes.com/news/crime-and-law/courts/eu-commission-refers-ireland-to-european-court-of-justice-over-failure-to-meet-renewable-energy-targets-1.1666177. [Accessed on 31st January 2014].
European Union (2012, ‘Directive 2012/27/EU of the European Parliament and of the council of 25 October 2012….’), Official Journal of the European Union: L 315/1.
Codema (2010) Dublin City Sustainable Energy Action Plan 2010-2020, Available at:http://www.dublincity.ie/WaterWasteEnvironment/Sustainability/Documents/SEAP-FINAL%20version%20for%20website.pdf (Accessed, 30/01/2014)
Kelly, O (2014) ‘Developers to be allowed build houses instead of apartments in Dublin zones’, Irish Times, 3 Jan. Available at: http://www.irishtimes.com/news/environment/developers-to-be-allowed-build-houses-instead-of-apartments-in-dublin-zones-1.1642730.